Hyperglycemia – causes and symptoms of hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia – clinical symptom denoting high blood sugar (glucose) in the blood serum. Hyperglycemia appears mainly in diabetes mellitus or other diseases of the endocrine system.
There are several conditional degrees of severity of the symptom:
– mild hyperglycemia (glucose level is 6-10 mmol/l);
– hyperglycemia moderate (10-16 mmol/l);
– severe hyperglycemia (more than 16 mmol/l).
If the blood sugar level exceeds 16.5 mmol/l, can occur prekomatoznoe state or coma.
People suffering from diabetes, there are two types of hyperglycemia:
– hyperglycemia on an empty stomach (if the person didn’t eat for about 8 hours, the level of sugar in the blood increases more than 7.2 mmol/l);
– hyperglycemia postprandial (after meal blood sugar level greater than 10 mmol/l).
If people not suffering from diabetes, after a heavy meal, the sugar level is increased to 10 mmol/l, this indicates a high risk of development of type 2 diabetes.
Diabetic patients should closely monitor the indicators of the level of glucose in the blood because of prolonged hyperglycemia is a risk of damage to nerves, blood vessels, and other dangerous conditions (ketoacidosis, coma).
To avoid serious complications of diabetes, you need time to detect the symptoms of hyperglycemia and to engage in their treatment.
Causes of hyperglycemia
The main reason behind the occurrence of hyperglycemia, is the low amount of insulin (the hormone that reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood). Sometimes insulin is unable to properly interact with the cells of the body to utilize glucose.
There are many reasons for the development of hyperglycemia, including overeating, eating high-calorie food containing high amount of simple and complex carbohydrates.
Stress can also be nediabeticescoy cause hyperglycemia. You need to monitor your physical activity: strong fatigue or, on the contrary, inactive lifestyle can lead to high blood sugar levels.
Infectious and chronic diseases can also cause symptoms of hyperglycemia. In people with diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia may occur due to missed receiving glucose-lowering drugs or injections of insulin.
The symptoms of hyperglycemia
Timely detection of symptoms of hyperglycemia can help to avoid serious complications. You first need to pay attention to thirst: if the concentration of glucose over 10 mmol/l, sugar excreted in the urine. Together with her useful salts are washed away, causing weakness, headache. dry mouth, itchy skin, weight loss, blurred vision, loss of consciousness. Cold and numb limbs, constipation. diarrhea and other problems of the gastrointestinal tract can also be symptoms of hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycemia can cause ketonuria (the presence in the urine of acetone bodies) and ketoacidosis (violation of carbohydrate metabolism, leading to diabetic coma). The effect of this mechanism is as follows: due to the high blood sugar and lack of insulin glucose gets into the cells. Therefore, the liver contains glycogen, it begins to break down to glucose, which further increases the amount of sugar. The cells do not get energy, and begins the breakdown of fats, which are produced ketone bodies (acetone). They enter the blood stream, resulting in disturbed natural acid balance.
In patients with diabetes mellitus people transition hyperglycemia from mild forms to more severe can last many years. But that’s only if the body is capable to produce insulin. So you need to make many efforts to treat the disease.
You should know that hyperglycemia is not a measure solely of diabetes, but could be evidence of other endocrine diseases.
Treatment of hyperglycemia
Primarily a person suffering from hyperglycemia, is obliged to regularly measure the amount of sugar in the blood. Conduct should be both fasting and after meals, several times a day. If the higher scores were recorded several times in a row, you should consult a doctor, as this may cause damage of blood vessels and organs, lead to various complications.
The concentration of glucose in the blood will help reduce moderate exercise, drinking large amounts of fluid (with high glucose levels need to drink every 30 minutes). But the exercise should be stopped if the sugar level is increased to 13.3 mmol/l and in urine ketone bodies are present.
When hyperglycemia is extremely important to follow a diet, but it should be done only after consultation with your doctor. Under control need to keep the amount of carbohydrates and calories contained in the consumed food.
Often, for the treatment of hyperglycemia, patients are prescribed insulin. If the symptom is nediabeticescoy, treatment is subject to some endocrine disorder that was his reason.
Hyperglycemia in children
In children the rate of hyperglycemia is concentration of sugar in the blood more than 6.5 mmol/l before meals and more than 8.9 mmol/l after meals.
In infants hyperglycemia are often, but doctors do not give a clear answer to the question, what exactly is the cause of high sugar levels in the blood of babies. Basically hyperglycemia occurs in children who weigh less than 1.5 kg, or recover from such serious diseases such as meningitis, septicemia, encephalitis and so on. Sometimes the concentration of sugar in the blood increases due to intravenous solutions of glucose (in children with low weight glucose in the body is processed more intensively).
If time does not detect hyperglycemia and not to be treated, the child can break the brain cells, which often leads to hemorrhage or edema of the brain. When hyperglycemia is dehydrated, so there is a danger of loss of body weight, development of diseases of the endocrine system.
To avoid hyperglycemia, it is necessary to constantly monitor the performance of urine and blood. If norms of glucose is exceeded, the child is administered the insulin.
Often the results of blood sugar level can indicate the severity of the condition of the child, which in consequence may lead to death.