THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENDURANCE
Endurance is the ability of muscles to develop a sustained effort over some period of time is the most important physical quality needed by any athlete. It is determined by the efficiency of all organs and body systems, primarily the Central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Endurance athlete also depends on the perfection of his technique, ability to perform a movement efficiently, without unnecessary muscle strains.
Endurance is General and special. General endurance is a component of a comprehensive physical development of any athlete. It is the result of significant positive changes in all body systems and organs. This improves the health of the athlete, his ability to work, thereby increasing the effectiveness of special training.
General endurance is acquired by the majority of physical exercises included in year-round training. Of course, training in the chosen sport will also improve overall endurance.
But the best way to purchase General endurance is a long period of training work is cyclical in nature (running, skiing, rowing, etc.) with relatively low intensity, especially at first.
This is confirmed by the fact that the load in the exercises aimed at improving the efficiency of the cardiovascular system, you need to carefully, gradually; to strengthen the muscles in the beginning, a long but low-intensity work. First, it is best to stick to an even pace of exercise, and changing it when the work does not allow to do it long.
For beginners, you can facilitate this by giving them for some period of time exercises with change of speed (very slow + moderately + slow, etc.).
Later, athletes pass on the rate constant with increasing duration of training. The heart rate should stay at a level no more than twice.
Over-trained athletes increase endurance by performing exercises with change of pace, for example running at a distance of 200-400 m at an average speed, then 100-200 m slowly, then again with an average speed etc. In such a run can be turned on and a short acceleration.
As they grow increase the size of the body or its parts. fitness athlete gradually over a number of years training load increases, the duration of each exercise, more and more developing General endurance.
Duration of training for the development of General endurance in the first session small: for beginners it does not exceed 5-8 min. Specifically, the exercise duration should be set, based on sports specialization training.
Total endurance, causing the overall health of the athlete and his health, however serves as a basis for the development of special endurance. The higher the level of General endurance, the better you can develop endurance special.
Repeated training in the chosen sport or perform special exercises is a major way to the development of special endurance.
For the development of special endurance in continuous operation are required to present higher demands on the athlete’s body during exercise. This is achieved primarily by working with the intensity, exceeding several (3-4%) that is able to withstand the athlete throughout the work. However, with higher intensity, he will be able to do the exercise considerably less time than would be needed in the competition. Therefore, a more intense degree of effort invested in training;. but shorter work must be repeated several times in one training session. This repeated exposure is more intensive work can be done in different training methods.
For trained athletes more efficient variable (interval) method: between individual repetitions of work with high intensity (from which the heart rate increases threefold) the athlete is resting, but not passively, but actively, that is, continues to perform the same job, but with less intensity (heart rate decreases, reaching against the rules only a twofold increase). For example, running in a training session for 20-40 times 400 meters with a speed of about 68 sec. the athlete uses to rest between repetitions slow running (100-150 m).
Currently alternating method is the primary means of training for endurance athletes in various sports. Another method used by stayers,— re. In this case, the athlete repeats the running for shorter distances than the distance in the competition, with rest intervals of 15-25 min. for Example, runner at 5000 m overcomes 5 times in 1000 m at a speed that is higher than required in the competition.
Fitness, acquired on the basis of the increased requirements to the body, when using an alternating and repeated methods makes it easier and more durable to perform work of lesser intensity. However, only these two methods cannot fully develop special endurance athletes. You must work to increase the duration of training exercises in a new, higher, rate. For this exercise include reference method — execution training work with the intensity required in the competition, but the length on the fourth-fifth less than the competition. Then this length is gradually increased until the job is done almost entirely on the estimation or completely during the competition.
For the education of the will to overcome the hardships of exercises with gradually increasing fatigue used tempo method. He is to perform more extensive work than the competition, but with less intensity (e.g., running at 15— 20 km for runners 5-10 km). However, only participation in competitions in the best least teaches the athlete to endure difficulties when performing continuous operation, to cultivate a will to overcome these difficulties.
The development of special endurance in the work a duration of 1-5 minutes is primarily re method. Can be applied and the alternating method, but under the condition of high intensity training.
The development of special endurance in a short-term training (up to 1 min), characterized by the maximum intensity, is achieved by repetition of the same work. Here again re apply the method with intervals of rest, sufficient to restore the athlete to repeat the exercises with the same maximum intensity.
Special endurance is organically linked with the “stock speed”, with its level of development. If the athlete is able to perform very fast intensive work, it is easier for him to withstand longer work with less intensity. It is therefore particularly important to combine the development of stamina levels increase the speed of movements.